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featured management models

five product levels: Kotler, Philip

five product levels

Kotler, Philip

  • topic: marketing & sales and technology & operations
  • period: 1969
In the 1960's, the economist Philip Kotler changed the perception of marketing. He described what marketing is rather than what marketers do, thereby changing marketing from a departmental specialisation into a corporate wide doctrine. For Kotler, marketing was a 'social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating...
five forces: Porter, Michael E.

five forces

Porter, Michael E.

  • topic: strategic management
  • period: 1980
Michael Porter's innovative research in the 1980's changed managers' perceptions of their own industry's importance as a factor for their company's strategy. Business unit managers would now have to study their industry's characteristics since an industry's structure determines its relative economic attractiveness and hence, the profit potential of all companies...
technology typology: Woodward, Joan

technology typology

Woodward, Joan

  • topic: org. design & development and technology & operations
  • period: 1958
The British academic, Joan Woodward, conducted an extensive, comparative empirical study from 1950 to 1959 at the South East Essex College of Technology and the Imperial College of Science and Technology in the United Kingdom. The study focused on the relationship between organisational structure and organisational performance. It measured a firm's comparative...
three generic strategies: Porter, Michael E.

three generic strategies

Porter, Michael E.

  • topic: strategic management
  • period: 1980
Michael Porter regarded the selection of a defendable position within an industry as the end result of a competitive strategic analysis. He argued that successful, profitable companies generally choose to compete on either low costs or by differentiating their products to meet specific customer needs. Although these two strategic options are mutually exclusive,...