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featured management models

ADAPT interview framework: Ingram, Thomas N.

ADAPT interview framework

Ingram, Thomas N.

  • topic: marketing & sales
  • period: 1995
In the early 1990's, the American marketing professor Thomas Ingram, co-developed the ADAPT questioning system to support relationship-based selling that requires a long term focus and spans multiple sales meetings. The method aimed first to identify the wider, organisational situation, then discover and explore customer needs. ADAPT is most effective for...
three generic strategies: Porter, Michael E.

three generic strategies

Porter, Michael E.

  • topic: strategic management
  • period: 1980
Michael Porter regarded the selection of a defendable position within an industry as the end result of a competitive strategic analysis. He argued that successful, profitable companies generally choose to compete on either low costs or by differentiating their products to meet specific customer needs. Although these two strategic options are mutually exclusive,...
five forces: Porter, Michael E.

five forces

Porter, Michael E.

  • topic: strategic management
  • period: 1980
Michael Porter's innovative research in the 1980's changed managers' perceptions of their own industry's importance as a factor for their company's strategy. Business unit managers would now have to study their industry's characteristics since an industry's structure determines its relative economic attractiveness and hence, the profit potential of all companies...
double loop learning: Argyris, Chris, Schön, Donald Alan

double loop learning

Argyris, Chris, Schön, Donald Alan

  • topic: change management, innovation & risk and org. design & development
  • period: 1978
Psychologist Chris Argyris and philosopher Donald Schön's intervention research focused on exploring the ways organisations can increase their capacity for double-loop learning. They argued that double-loop learning is necessary if organisations and its members are to manage problems effectively that originate in rapidly changing and uncertain contexts. Argyris...