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corporate innovation indicators: Kleinknecht, Alfred

corporate innovation indicators

Kleinknecht, Alfred

  • topic: finance & accounting and innovation & risk
  • period: 1992
Alfred Kleinknecht graduated in economics at the Free University of Berlin in 1977 and obtained a PhD in economics at the Free University of Amsterdam in 1984 where he was a professor of Industrial Economics from 1994 until 1997, then professor in the Economics of Innovation at TU Delft. His study focuses on economics of innovation and his expertise comprises...
pest analysis:

pest analysis


  • topic: marketing & sales and strategic management
  • period: 1950-1959
Beginning in the 1950's, research on organisations emphasised the importance of understanding the wider meso- and macro-economic environment in which organisations operate. An organisation on its own cannot affect environmental factors, nor can environmental factors affect the profitability of an industry or an organisation. Conducting a strategic analysis...
three generic strategies: Porter, Michael E.

three generic strategies

Porter, Michael E.

  • topic: strategic management
  • period: 1980
Michael Porter regarded the selection of a defendable position within an industry as the end result of a competitive strategic analysis. He argued that successful, profitable companies generally choose to compete on either low costs or by differentiating their products to meet specific customer needs. Although these two strategic options are mutually exclusive,...
value chain analysis: Porter, Michael E.

value chain analysis

Porter, Michael E.

  • topic: finance & accounting, marketing & sales, org. design & development and strategic management
  • period: 1985
Michael Porter published the Value Chain Analysis in 1985 as a response to criticism that his Five Forces framework lacked an implementation methodology that bridged the gap between internal capabilities and opportunities in the competitive landscape. This framework focused on industry attractiveness as a determinant of the profit potential of all companies...