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corporate innovation indicators: Kleinknecht, Alfred
 

corporate innovation indicators

Kleinknecht, Alfred

  • topic: finance & accounting and innovation & risk
  • period: 1992
Alfred Kleinknecht graduated in economics at the Free University of Berlin in 1977 and obtained a PhD in economics at the Free University of Amsterdam in 1984 where he was a professor of Industrial Economics from 1994 until 1997, then professor in the Economics of Innovation at TU Delft. His study focuses on economics of innovation and his expertise comprises...
 
six coordination mechanisms: Mintzberg, Henry
 

six coordination mechanisms

Mintzberg, Henry

  • topic: org. design & development
  • period: 1979
The Canadian academic, Henry Mintzberg, distinguished six coordination mechanisms from organisational design literature. Any group of individuals that needs to accomplish a complex task faces two opposing requirements: the division of labour of the task into subtasks to support specialisation, and the coordination of these subtasks to accomplish the overall...
 
five product levels: Kotler, Philip
 

five product levels

Kotler, Philip

  • topic: marketing & sales and technology & operations
  • period: 1969
In the 1960's, the economist Philip Kotler changed the perception of marketing. He described what marketing is rather than what marketers do, thereby changing marketing from a departmental specialisation into a corporate wide doctrine. For Kotler, marketing was a 'social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating...
 
diamond model - competitive advantage of nations: Porter, Michael E.
 

diamond model - competitive advantage of nations

Porter, Michael E.

  • topic: culture & internationalisation and strategic management
  • period: 1990
In the mid-1980s, Professor Michael Porter of Harvard Business School developed a framework to assess the competitiveness of regions, states and nations.In the early 1980s, U.S. industry saw its economic competitiveness eroded by Japanese and European competitors. Porter concluded that classical international trade theories, which mainly focused...